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摭谈英语教材的文本再构的作用

作者:第一论文网 更新时间:2015年10月26日 21:04:51

应天栋,浙江省上虞市实验小学(312300)。


    文本再构是在基于教材文本,基于学生学情的前提下,将各种教学资源变成为学生语言学习文本的实现过程。
    英语教材是英语课程资源的核心部分。不一样的经历,不一样的体验,必然带来差异化和个性化的解读。体会不同,体验差异,感受个性,或许就是作为教师教学最大的幸福所在。为了这份幸福,我们需要不断地走进学生的生活,将教材内容进行理性解构,动态生成教材文本内容,师生在实施教材时对内容进行个性化和同步化的再构,从而使师生不再被教材所束缚。
    一、基于教材词汇内容的文本再构
    英语教材是一个“文本”和语言范本,词汇内容是其中最基础的学习内容。它既是学生学习语言的最基本内容,又是发展学生语言能力和积累语言知识非常重要的内容。同时,教材本身呈现的词汇容量是有限的,师生教学过程中所需的有些材料不一定都能在教材中充分体现出来。这就要求教师认真钻研教材,运用创造性的教学思维,串联相关的教学内容,引入基于教材内容的相关语言知识,实现教材词汇内容的文本再构。
    如在进行PEP Book7 Unit 4关于职业的语言学习时,课本中出现的职业单词较少,难以表达大部分学生的真实信息。因此,教师应适时加入能反映学生真实信息的语言知识,如staff,cook,house wife,businessman,manager等词汇。正是在基于教材文本的同时,根据实际需要,对语言内容进行了丰富,学生才出现相对比较真实和丰富的语言输出。例如:
    Student 1: My father is short and big. He is a cook. He can cook yummy food. He likes eating. And he doesn't like sports. That's why he looks so big. But I love my dad, he always cooks yummy food for me and plays with me.
    Student 2: My mother is a house wife. She always stays at home. But she is very helpful and nice. She always cooks nice food for my dad and me. She cleans the house and washes the clothes for us. Sometimes she also helps with my homework. We often go shopping together. My mom is my good friend. I love her.
    这种对教材的再构是在确定了教学目标、任务的前提下,依据教材本身的特点和学生的实际情况,精选最能反映任务的内容,简明扼要、深入浅出地再构教材,从而实现教材语言知识的合理运用,实现有效、高效的课堂教学,提高学生对教学内容的适应性。
    二、基于教材对话内容的文本再构
    基于教材对话内容的文本再构,是指挖掘和开发教材中语言的文化、知识和思想,加强学生对语言的感受和体验,调动学生视觉上、听觉上和思维上已有的丰富信息,从而实现学生语言能力的提升。在实践中,笔者尝试运用画本等载体充实对话背景,帮助学生学习和感知语言,创设具有比较丰富的语言情境的对话文本。
    如针对五年级的对话形式比较简单,在进行文本再构时,教师除了可以利用旁边插图丰富学生的表达之外,还可以在对话的上面加上一定的背景介绍,例如PEP Book 6 Unit 5 Part B Let's talk:
    Go to the Zoo
    Wu Yifan and John are in the zoo. They see many funny animals. They like animals very much. Now, they are going to the elephant house.
    Wu: What do you see?
    John: I see two elephants.
    Wu: What are they doing?
    John: They are drinking water.
    Now, they are going to the monkey house. There are many monkeys. They are playing together.
    Wu: Can you see the monkeys?
    John: Yes. They are swinging.
    Now, they are going to the________house. There are________.
    Wu: ________.
    John: ________.
    How happy they are!
    通过这样的教材文本再构,不但丰富了学生的语言感知内容和途径,同时通过类似平台的搭建,为学生语言输出的丰富和语言表达能力的提升创设了机会。
    三、基于教材语段内容的文本再构
    在中、高年级教材中出现了信息更加丰富、内容更加饱满的语段知识,但教材中的语段多以对话形式出现,缺少真正的语段内容。因此,教师在教学过程中,既可以通过变换人称复述对话内容,构建真正的语段内容,也可以选用一些与学生学习内容联系紧密的课外语言资源,实现对教材语段内容的文本再构。如在学习PEP Book 6 Unit 2 My Favourite Season Part B Read and write后,教师为了进一步激发学生语言输出的兴趣,鼓励其表达自己对生活的体验和感受,在单元复习阶段引入了课外英语学习材料Little Fox的One Fall Day(见图1、图2、图3、图4)。教师利用Flash中呈现的丰富语言信息和语言情境,组织和引导进行分点讨论,比如说故事里看到的天气、人物的服饰、看到的景物、人物的活动等。
    G393W904.jpg
    1. What's the weather like in fall in this story?
    Usually it is sunny. It is windy. It is cloudy. Sometimes it is rainy. It is often warm, but it is getting colder.
    2. What do the people wear in this story?
    They can wear sweater with the shirt. They can wear jeans and sneakers. They can wear sweater with pants.
    3. What do you see in fall in this story?
    We see many falling leaves. The leaves are yellow and orange. Some are red. Some are golden.
    We see many animals. They are busy for winter. The squirrels are gathering the nuts. The birds are flying away.
    We see many people. Some are picking up fruits. Some are carving the pumpkins.
    4. What do the people do in fall in this story?
    They can have a walk with friends. They can go hiking with friends. They can do some farm work. They can make pumpkin lanterns for Halloween. They can do some gardening.
    这样话题式的讨论,通过对教材文本的再构和扩充,充实了学生对话题内容的语言知识储备,丰富了学生对话题内容的语言表达,同时激发了学生对话题内容的情感体验。正因为如此,学生在接下来的环节中,进行了个性化、差异化的阐述,表达了对话题内容的不同感受。例如:
    Student 1: The days are short and cold. I am playing outside with my friend. There are few people. It is so quiet. There are no birds and other animals. We can't see any fish in the river. We can't see many leaves on the trees. The sky is gray. All of things are sleeping. It is so boring. I don't like winter.
    Student 2: The animals are busy in spring. The squirrel is playing and jumping in the trees. The birds are flying and singing in the sky. The fish are swimming in the water. The trees are dancing in the wind. People are busy too. Some kids are playing football. Some are having a picnic. Some are flying kites. Where am I? Haha, I am running with my dog. Oh, what a busy fall!
    新课程要求教师的教学要密切联系学生生活的世界,使教材内容生活化。在基于教材文本、基于学生学情的前提下,将各种教学资源变成为学生语言学习的文本内容,帮助学生积累语言素材,并创设舞台,鼓励学生运用已有语言素材。通过文本再构,丰富学生对知识生活化的体验,激发学生的学习热情;通过文本再构,让学生在获得语言知识的同时,更获得语言能力的提升;通过文本再构,使教材内容进一步生活化,从而满足了学生成长的需求,更促进了理论与实践的有机结合。^